Cake Flour. "Red" and "white" refer to the color of the bran. Both are highly desirable when making a traditional Neapolitan pizza. Depending on the recipe you use, where you live and where you shop, flour can be named differently. Their 00 flours are labeled specifically for fresh pasta and gnocchi, for cakes and pastry, for long fermentation doughs, and for pizza. While you can substitute bread flour or all-purpose flour (neither of which are milled nearly as fine), or even King Arthur’s Italian-style flour (their version of 00 flour, which has a low protein content of 8.5%), it won’t produce quite the same results. This isn’t great for bread but it’s perfect for pasta. To make things more complicated (in the US in particular), you might come across white wholewheat flour. Even as stone-mill technology progressed and they came to rely on wind and water power, they required the watchful presence of a miller to ensure that the friction wasn't causing the stones to overheat. Clear flour is commonly added to whole grain and rye breads (to which it adds strength and where its drab color can be hidden) and used in the production of vital wheat gluten. White wheat, on the other hand, has no tannins (white wine, by contrast, just has lower levels than red), giving it a milder flavor and a light color. The process is called flour enrichment. King Arthur and Hecker’s all-purpose flours are milled from hard wheats, resulting in a higher protein content ranging from 11.4 to 11.7%, edging them up into the bread-flour domain. Winter wheat has a relatively low protein content (10-12%), so it’s often blended with soft wheat to make all-purpose flour. Wheat is a type of grass plant that produces ears of grains—rows upon rows of seeds wrapped in papery husks (the chaff), which, over the last 10,000 years, humans have learned to cultivate, harvest, process, and transform into breads, noodles, fried doughs, and so much more. **One exception to this is whole wheat flour, which has a protein content between 11 and 15%. Kristina is the author of A Guide to Northeast Grains, an introductory guide to regional flours. In general, wholemeal, wholewheat and wholegrain flour all refer to unrefined flours i.e. rye, spelt or buckwheat. All wheat flours are not created equal: Each flour has its own distinct qualities, from its protein content and how finely it’s ground to the variety of wheat it’s milled from, all of which affect the way it acts once made into a batter or dough. That’s why 100% whole wheat bread can be incredibly dense. For these reasons, we recommend stocking Gold Medal’s Blue Label as a standard all-purpose flour because it provides a mix of protein and starch that we find to be the most versatile for a wide range of recipes. Whole wheat flour comes in two varieties: 100 percent whole wheat flour and white whole wheat flour. In general, the higher the protein content, the more gluten the dough can potentially develop. Products made with this flour will be more dense in texture. To determine which type of wheat is the best match for a recipe, it’s important to understand how the hardness, color, and time of year when the wheat is harvested affects the flours that they produce. Post whatever you want, just keep it seriously about eats, seriously. I frequently buy Gilchesters Organics wholewheat flour (produced in Northumberland in the UK). To replicate the whitening process, mills turn to benzoyl peroxide or chlorine gas. To find this, you’ll need to dig deeper and go directly to the producer's website. Initially powered by steam, today they run on electricity and operate by passing grains of wheat through pairs of rollers—a process that mitigates the high temperatures associated with stone milling (though grains may reach 95°F briefly, that temperature doesn't threaten to destroy any nutrients). In addition to whitening, the process of chlorination improves the baking properties of soft wheat flour by weakening gluten and lowering pH—which helps to produce a sweeter flavor, finer crumb, and a more aerated final product. A perfect accompaniment for turkey, mashed potatoes, and stuffing. In The Baking Bible, Rose Levy Beranbaum uses it to create sponge and angel food cakes, since Wondra yields a tender crumb. The term wholemeal is more commonly used in the UK, while wholewheat and wholegrain are terms more frequently used in the US. Several commercial mills (Heckers & Ceresota Flour, King Arthur Flour, and Gold Medal) produce white whole wheat flour. For bread it is best combine part whole wheat flour with part all-purpose flour. She has baked in professional kitchens in Washington, DC, Boston and New York City. We call for bleached cake flour exclusively in angel food cake, pumpkin spice cake, strawberry cake, and blackberry cake. We reserve the right to delete off-topic or inflammatory comments. Whole wheat flour makes up only 6% of all flour produced in the United States. If you look closely at one of these whole grains, you’ll first notice a dark outer covering. White whole wheat flour is milled from hard white wheat, with a protein content around 13%. All the benefits of sous vide cooking, paired with deep, roasty flavors and extra-crispy skin to satisfy a crowd. Hard wheat has a higher protein content (11-15%) than soft wheat (5-9%), meaning the former has more capacity for gluten development than the latter. Low-protein flours lack the protein needed for chewy bagels and are best suited for tender and fluffy cakes. Note that wholewheat refers to flour made from wheat, while the terms wholemeal and wholegrain can also refer to other varieties of grain e.g. Small independent flour millers, like Maine Grains and Bluebird Grain Farms, and some larger flour operations, like Bob’s Red Mill, King Arthur Flour, and Heckers & Ceresota Flour, naturally age their flours. Whole wheat flour makes up only 6% of all flour produced in the United States. The protein content of each depends on the brand and the type of wheat used. (Italian flours use a grading system of 00, 0, 1, and 2, in which the numbers correspond to the fineness of the grind and the amount of bran and germ removed. At the turn of the 20th century, commercial flour mills sought to increase production by using maturing and bleaching agents to shorten that aging process; commercial mills, like Gold Medal, Pillsbury, and White Lily, chemically treat some flours to achieve the effects of flour-aging in just two days. Note that due to the different climate/agronomy, the wheat varieties grown in the UK differ to the wheat types in the US. Cake flour is milled from the innermost part of the endosperm of soft wheat. The first five are all varieties of a species known as common wheat or bread wheat—hard red winter, hard red spring, soft red winter, hard white, and soft white—and account for 95% percent of wheat production worldwide. Subjecting flour to temperatures over 170°F causes the fat in the wheat germ to rapidly oxidize and rancidify, resulting in the loss of vitamins and minerals, as well as a significantly reduced shelf life. and as a coating for fried meat, fish, or vegetables because it produces delicate, crispy crusts, that’s only the beginning. On the other end of the spectrum is Type 00: it has the finest grind, a powdery texture, and contains very little of the bran and germ.). It has a higher percentage of starch and the least amount of protein (7-8%) when compared with other wheat flours, which keeps cakes delicate. I know I’m not the only one. White wholewheat is a lighter flour with a finer texture and milder flavour compared to regular wholewheat. Milled from hard red wheat, its protein content ranges from 11-15 percent. Cake flour has the lowest protein content of all flours at 5 to 8 percent. For the purposes of this guide, I’m focusing on the most widely available bread and durum wheat flours in the US. For this reason, millers began using a process called bolting, in which they sift bran out of the flour to whiten, or refine, the flour and slow the onset of rancidity. Its golden color comes from high concentrations of carotenoids, or pigments, which give the wheat a lovely, deep yellow hue. Bleached cake flour churns out cakes that are moist and light as it’s capable of holding more sugar, butter, and additions such as nuts, fruit, or chocolate; unbleached alternatives, on the other hand, will often fall flat. Early stone mills relied on human or animal power to move a top "runner" stone against a stationary bottom "bedstone." Before diving into the similarities and differences between various wheat flours, it’s helpful to understand a little more about the grain they’re made from. White wheat is a type of wheat which has no major genes for bran color. It can also be mixed with all-purpose or bread flours to create breads that have a lighter wheat flavor and a less dense crumb. Gold Medal and Pillsbury all-purpose flours blend hard and soft wheats, yielding a mid-range protein level of around 10 to 11%—perfect for cookies, pancakes, and pie dough, but also capable of producing a passable loaf of bread. High-protein flours perform well in airy, crusty loaves, but can spell disaster for tender biscuits.