In 1915, Harris returned to England to fight in the European theatre of the war. See also Ben Macintyre's review of Richard Overy. In 1942, the British Cabinet agreed to the "area bombing" of German cities. Marshal of the Royal Air Force Sir Arthur Travers Harris, 1st Baronet GCB OBE AFC (13 April 1892 – 5 April 1984), commonly known as "Bomber" Harris by the press and often within the RAF as "Butcher" Harris, was Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief (AOC-in-C) RAF Bomber Command during the height of the Anglo-American strategic bombing campaign against Nazi Germany in the Second World War. [55], After D-Day (6 June 1944), with the resumption of the strategic bomber campaign over Germany, Harris remained wedded to area bombardment. Sir Arthur "Bomber" Harris has become the latest target of activists demanding statues are toppled. [4], A former Allhallows student, the actor Arthur Chudleigh, often visited the school and gave the boys free tickets to his shows. "We cut a hole in the nose and rigged up our own bomb racks and I turned those machines into the heaviest and best bombers in the command". Having acquired the skills necessary to ranch successfully in Rhodesia, Harris decided that he would start his own farm in the country as soon as Townsend returned. Together they developed "night training for night operations". [74], Within the postwar British government there was some disquiet about the level of destruction that had been created by the area-bombing of German cities towards the end of the war. Harris was given the task of implementing Churchill [20] His squadron was equipped with poorly-maintained Bristol F.2 Fighter aircraft. [9], The 1st Rhodesia Regiment briefly garrisoned Bloemfontein, then served alongside the South African forces in South-West Africa during the first half of 1915. Neillands, Robin. [91][92][93], "Bomber Harris" redirects here. ", "Whirlwind: Bombing Germany (September 1939 – April 1944)", "Therese (née Hearne), Lady Harris; Jacqueline Jill Assheton (née Harris)", "Sir Arthur 'Bomber' Harris: An effective leader in command? At the start of the bombing campaign, Harris said, quoting the Old Testament. But they are strategically justified in so far as they tend to shorten the war and preserve the lives of Allied soldiers. [57], The historian Bernard Wasserstein notes that the official history of British strategic bombing says, in what Wasserstein describes as 'an unusually sharp personal observation', that "Harris made a habit of seeing only one side of a question and then of exaggerating it. During his funeral in 1984, a bomber flew low over the cemetery. [76], Disappointed to have missed the opportunity to return to Southern Rhodesia as governor because of the war, Harris wrote to Huggins in June 1945 that he would like to be considered if the office were ever open again, and that he would be interested in other Southern Rhodesian government appointments relating to aviation or perhaps entering politics there. [7] According to Probert, Harris by now regarded himself "primarily as a Rhodesian", a self-identification he would retain for the rest of his life. In spite of all that happened at Hamburg, bombing proved a relatively humane method. He arrived in October 1915, moved in with his parents in London and, after unsuccessfully attempting to find a position in first the cavalry, then the Royal Artillery, joined the Royal Flying Corps[11] as a second lieutenant on probation on 6 November 1915. Nicholas Assheton, CVO, Treasurer to Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother from 1998 to her death in 2002,[84] younger son of Ralph Assheton, 1st Baron Clitheroe. [39] He was advanced to Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath on 11 June 1942. Harris received such a ticket in 1909, and went to see the play during his summer holidays. "[75] Bomber Command's crews were denied a separate campaign medal (despite being eligible for the Air Crew Europe Star and France and Germany Star) and, in protest at this establishment snub to his men, Harris refused a peerage in 1946; he was the sole commander-in-chief not to become a peer.